Seroprevalence of BVDV and its potential risk factors in dairy cattle of Ethiopia

Tadele Tadesse, Yosef Deneke, Benti Deresa

  • School of Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a highly contagious infectious agent of cattle populations across the world and causing a significant economic loss due to decreased performance, loss of milk production, reproductive disturbances and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is an envelope, positive-sense single-stranded (ss+) RNA-virus and belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. The cross-sectional study was done form January, 2016 up to January, 2017 to estimate the seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus and its potential risk factors in dairy cattle of Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 420 blood samples were collected from 45 dairy farms of the town. All sampled animals were identified by their sex, age, breeds, history of reproduction disorders (abortion, repeat breeding), parity status and history of farms by using questioner. The serum extracted from blood samples for the detection of BVDV antibody by using blocking ELISA. In this study, 51.7% (217/420) and 95.6% (43/45) seroprevalence of BVDV antibody was observed at individual and herd level, respectively. The higher seroprevalence of was observed in adult animals 55.1% (95% CI: 49.9-60.2%), dairy farms introduced new animals to their herds 100% (95% CI: 85.7-100%) and cows with history of repeat breeding as compared with cows with history of abortion 40.0% (95% CI: 24.6-57.7%) (P<0.05). In this study, age (OR: 2.5; P<0.05), repeat breeder cows (OR: 2.4; P<0.05) and introduction of new animals to herds (OR: 1.6; P<0.05) were identified as potential risk factors for the seroprevalence of BVDV. This high seroprevalence result implies as BVD is widely distributed among Jimma town dairy farms and affecting production and productivity of farms. Thus, older and repeat breeder animals should be tested for BVD and properly managed as they act as potential source of infection in addition to awareness creation about BVD for the dairy owners.
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