I) Causal agent, clinical signs and transmission, diagnosis in reproductive problems
Since it was first described by Olafson et al. in 1946 in the US, bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) has become one of the most important infectious bovine diseases due to both its high prevalence in America and Europe (Houe, 1999) and its clinical effects (Gunn et al., 2005; Peterhans et al., 2010; Berends et al., 2008) and its negative economic impact on herds (Fourichon et al., 2005; Heuer et al., 2007).
Read the first part of the article focused on the disease aetiopathogenesis and diagnostic techniques here!
II) Impact on fertility and early pregnancy losses, impact on mid term and late pregnancy losses: misscarriages and stillbirths, reproductive effect on bulls, general effect on reproduction
The impact of any infection on the reproductive function of animals can be mediated by different mechanisms and effects. Evidence of infertility (which can include early embryo losses or the inability to get pregnant), late embryo/early foetal losses (after a positive pregnancy diagnosis), miscarriages and, lastly, the birth of weak calves that die during birth or in the first 24 hours (stillbirths) is sought.
Read the second part of the article focused on fertility, pregnancy losses, misscarriages, stillbirths, bull reproduction... here!