This study provides useful information for carrying out epidemiological surveys of BVDV in the ROK and developing a vaccine for future use in the ROK, particularly for the first detection of BVDV-1o in Korean indigenous calves.
Eighty-seven calves (60.8%, 87/143) were tested positive for BVDV as evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 5′-untranslated region was used to classify these cases into three subtypes: BVDV-1b, BVDV-1o, and BVDV-2a. These results showed that BVDV-1b was the predominant subtype, while 2 samples clustered with BVDV-2a. Interestingly, one sample formed a separate group as a potentially new subtype, BVDV-1o. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BVDV-1o infection in Korean native calves. The BVDV-1o subtype identified in this study was closely related to cattle isolates obtained from Japan, indicating that this subtype is a new introduction to the ROK.